Insulation and Ductwork Insulation
Man, I hate insulation!!! But, you've got to have it. General home insulation and ductwork insulation is a real good way to keep saving money over the years. I will only talk about rolled fiberglass insulation because it's the only kind I know about. It's also the most cost efficient.
Rolled insulation comes in sizes that fit perfectly between floor joists, walls, and trusses. If you build your floor joists on 16-inch centers, then you get the 15-inch wide rolls. If you've spaced the joists on 24-inch centers, then the 23-inch wide will be perfect.
You will have different thickness options. Some are pretty much standard for instance, if you build your walls with 2X4's then you'll only be able to use R-11 or R-13. That is the thickness of a 2X4.
If you build walls with 2X6's, then you'll be able to use R-19, which is the thickness of a 2X6. Most modern homes are built with 2X6 walls, not so much for strength, but more for energy efficiency.
It's a good idea to insulate floors. The insulation can be quite thick in floors. That's always a good thing. It may seem like you're spending a lot of money at the time, but it's worth it.
The importance of floor insulation and ductwork insulation is almost always underestimated.
You should try to make energy efficient walls by putting in R-19 if possible.
Make sure you get insulation everywhere. Be sure to put it behind outlet boxes and inside headers. Sometimes these are left out and they loose heat.
One of the biggest heat losses is in ductwork insulation. With the new ductwork wraps available, you can can save a bunch of money on heating and cooling.
The duct wrap just wraps around the air ducts and some people even wrap water heaters. Water heaters are already insulated pretty good, but if it's in a drafty location then definitely wrap it up.
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Floor and crawl space insulation
Wall and ceiling insulation